Typhoid fever is an acute fever-related illness caused by Salmonella enteritidis serotype typhoid fever. It may also be caused by Salmonella paratyphi, which is a related bacteria that does not generally cause serious illness. Bacteria are deposited in water or food by human carriers and then spread to other people in the area.
In most cases, you will get salmonella when you eat or drink something that contains bacteria. It is most commonly found in foods derived from animals, such as eggs, beef and poultry. But soil or water can also contaminate fruits and vegetables. You can also transfer bacteria from one food to another by hand or with knives, plates, plates and other kitchen utensils. If you do not cook certain foods well enough, you may get an infection.
The incidence of typhoid fever in the United States has dropped significantly since the early 1900s, when tens of thousands of cases were reported in the United States, Mexico and South America. This improvement is the result of better environmental hygiene. India, Pakistan and Egypt are also known as high-risk areas for this disease. Globally, typhoid fever affects more than 21 million people every year, and about 200,000 people die from the disease.
How do people get typhoid fever?
Drinking or eating contaminated food or bacteria in water can cause typhoid fever. People with acute diseases may contaminate the surrounding water supply through feces, which contain high concentrations of bacteria. Contamination of the water supply will in turn contaminate the food supply. Bacteria can survive in dry water or sewage for several weeks.
After an acute illness, about 3% to 5% of people become carriers of the bacteria. Other people’s illnesses were very mild and did not attract attention. These people can become long-term carriers of bacteria even if they have no symptoms, and are the source of new typhoid fever over the years.
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How is typhoid fever diagnosed?
After ingesting contaminated food or water, Salmonella can invade the small intestine and temporarily enter the bloodstream. Bacteria are carried by white blood cells in the liver, spleen and bone marrow, where they multiply and re-enter the bloodstream. At this time, people will experience symptoms including fever. Bacteria invade the gallbladder, biliary system and lymphatic tissues of the intestine. Here, they multiply in large numbers. Bacteria enter the intestine and can be identified in a stool sample. If the test result is not clear, a blood or urine sample will be taken for diagnosis.
Tingling usually occurs on the temples, forehead and the side near the eyes. Migraines can make you very sensitive to light, sound or slight fatigue, such as climbing stairs. Many people have nausea, vomiting or vision problems. Pain can cause disability and force people to miss work or other activities.
What are the symptoms of typhoid fever?
The incubation period is usually 1 to 2 weeks, and the duration of the disease is about 3 to 4 weeks. Symptoms include:
Fever to 104 degrees Fahrenheit
Chest congestion develops in many people, and abdominal pain and discomfort are common. Fever keeps going. Patients without complications showed improvement in the third and fourth weeks. After about one or two weeks of improvement, about 10% of people have relapsed symptoms. In fact, recurrence is more common in people receiving antibiotic treatment.
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The reason why Nigerians die of typhoid/ treatment
Typhoid fever can be treated with antibiotics that kill Salmonella. Before antibiotics, the mortality rate was 20%. The cause of death was excessive infection, pneumonia, intestinal bleeding or intestinal perforation. With antibiotics and palliative care, the mortality rate has been reduced to 1-2%. If treated with appropriate antibiotics, it usually improves within one or two days and recovers within seven to ten days.
Several antibiotics can effectively treat typhoid fever. For many years, chloramphenicol has been the drug of choice. Due to rare serious side effects, chloramphenicol has been replaced by other effective antibiotics. The selection of antibiotics is based on the identification of the geographical area where the infection is infected (certain strains from South America show significant resistance to certain antibiotics). If it recurs, the patient is retreated with antibiotics.
Those with chronic diseases (approximately 3% to 5% of infected people)
According to WHO
Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. It is preventable and curable.
In 2018, there were an estimated 228 million cases of malaria worldwide.
The estimated number of malaria deaths stood at 405 000 in 2018.
Children aged under 5 years are the most vulnerable group affected by malaria; in 2018, they accounted for 67% (272 000) of all malaria deaths worldwide.
The WHO African Region carries a disproportionately high share of the global malaria burden. In 2018, the region was home to 93% of malaria cases and 94% of malaria deaths.
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